In this paper planar circular Electromagnetic Band Gap (EBG) structures have been implemented in the Butler matrix fed antenna array system to improve the radiation performance of the system. Initially a conventional 4×4 Butler matrix fed antenna array system has been designed at 14.5 GHz. Asymmetricity in the gain values of major beams of the antenna array system has been observed both in simulation and measurement. Generally due to the design simplicity, light weight and compactness, the rectangular patch microstrip antenna has been used as the radiating element in the Butler matrix fed antenna array system. At higher frequencies microstrip antenna suffers from losses due to surface wave excitation.
It degrades the radiation efficiency of the antenna array system and also increases the level of mutual coupling between the radiating elements in the antenna array. EBG (Electromagnetic Band Gap) units are used to improve the radiation performance of the system by the generation of stop band. The propagation of surface wave will be suppressed in this stop band region and may improve the performance of the system. To fulfill this requirement, 3 × 1 planar circular EBG unit has been designed. A stop band of 2.15 GHz with the centre frequency of 14.5 GHz has been obtained by the proposed EBG unit. The 3×1 planar circular EBG unit has been integrated between the radiating elements of the antenna array system. As a result the gain enhancement has been achieved for the 1R, 2L, 2R and 1L beams both in simulation and measurement at 14.5 GHz.