Diffusion-Based Clock Synchronization for Molecular Communication Under Inverse Gaussian Distribution

Nanonetworks are expected to expand the capabilities of individual nanomachines by allowing them to cooperate and share information by molecular communication. The information molecules are released by the transmitter nanomachine and diffuse across the aqueous channel as a Brownian motion holding the feature of a strong random movement with a large propagation delay. In order to ensure an effective real-time cooperation, it is necessary to keep the clock synchronized among the nanomachines in the nanonetwork.

This paper proposes a model on a two-way message exchange mechanism with the molecular propagation delay based on the inverse Gaussian distribution. The clock offset and clock skew are estimated by the maximum-likelihood estimation. Simulation results by MATLAB show that the mean square errors of the estimated clock offsets and clock skews can be reduced and converge with a number of rounds of message exchanges. The comparison of the proposed scheme with a clock synchronization method based on symmetrical propagation delay demonstrates that our proposed scheme can achieve better performance in terms of accuracy.

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